• Item #: 0667
RGVEDA SAMHITA VOLUME 1 INTRODUCTION Origin of Speech When we take to the study of language, the first and foremost question stands as to how when and where the language originated. More the linguists troubled their head in this direction, the less they achieved success. So far it has remained an unsolved conundrum. The more it was solved, the more it became complex. Now many linguistic societies in the world have banned to raise this question again on the forum. Among the hosts of theories put forward on the origin of speech, one is regarding the divine origin of speech. So long it has been contended by almost all the scholars both at home and abroad that the Vedas are the propunder of this theory. In this connection a number of observations made by Vedic Seers have been cited, e.g: ‘Samskrtam nama daivi vaganvakhyata maharsibhih’ ‘daivim vacamayajanata devah tam visvarupah pasvo vadanti (RV.8.100.11) ‘tasmat yajnat sarvahuta rcah samani jajnire Chandamsi jajnire tasmad yajustasmadajayata (VS.31.7) ‘aptopadesah sadbah’(Nyayasastra 1.1) Agni vayuravibhyastu trayam brahma sanatanam Dudoha yajna siddhyarthamrgyajuh sama laksanam (Svetasvatara UP.6.18) ‘tebhyastaptebhyastrayo vedajayanta agnerrgvedo ‘evam va are’sya mahatobhutasya nihsvasitam Etadyadrgvedo yajurvedah samavedo’tharvangirasah’ Simply quoting these observations without understanding the actual intended sense of the speakers, everybody assumed without applying mind that they support the divine origin of speech. Nobody least bothered as to what system or method was followed to determine the origin of various names/words, etc. by the ancient Indian etymologists and other authorities who discussed at length the factors behind the origin of various names. Types of Speech Vedic visionaries divided the whole linguistic phenomenon into two types, ivz. Para and apara. 1 Para-Vak Pura-vak or para-speech was studied purely as a psychological phenomenon. Through it was an unarticulate speech (avyakta-vak), it was also used to convey the speaker’s intention, it was transmitted at the mental level or Manomayakosa. A person sitting at one place was able to transmit his message to another person sitting at another place through the mental waves or the waves of consciousness activated by the power of sankalpa (will). In fact, the consciousness is also pervading the whole universe like that of matter in the form of electrons, However, this type of communication is not possible by a laity. Only the Yogis or Rsis who completely master their mental faculties through concentration and contemplation are able to communicate through para-vak or para-speech. In the modern times, the communication has though been made fast through wireless, telephone and satalite controls, it has become expensive and one has to depend upon so many apparatuses and other operators. On the other hand, communication through telepathy needn’t the expense of a single mite and anybody’s help. It requires no media like telephones, satellite, etc. Communication through telepathy is possible from one country to another country, from one planet to another planet. 2 Apara-vak Apara-vak or vyakta-vak (articulate speech) was studied as a physiological phenomenon, since the Vedic seers meant by apara-vak the vyakta- vak or articulate speech. Before a speech is articulated at physiological level, it passes through two stages. First one being the pasyanti (visual) stage. At this stage, an individual with inquisitive perception visualizes some physical action in the objects/things around him in his own idiosyncratic way. At the second stage, i.e. at the stage of madhyama – vak, the physical actions are imprinted in his mind in the form of concept (pratyaya). The Vedic seer had it as: Tam madhyamaya vaca samsati. Atmanameva tat samskurute. ‘He appreciates the visualized object. Thus by appreciating some object or thing, one registers the samskara (imprint) of the action of visualized object in his mind in the form of some concept’. In fact pratyaya or concept may be called as a psychological action. Bhartrhari, a great ancient linguist of India dilates upon the concept or pratyaya as under: ‘athedamantaram jnanam suksmavagatmana sthitam vyaktaye Svasya rupasya sabdatvena vivartate.’ ‘Pratyaya or concept is an internal, or psychological awareness that gets registered in the consciousness. It is often articulate in the form of sounds. Further he observes: ‘na so’sti pratyayo loke yah sabkanugamad rte anuviddhamiva Jnanam sarvam sabdena bhasate’ ‘There is no such concept in the world as can be expressed/articulated without sound. All concepts or conceptualized actions are released only by way of sounds (uttered by men or animals).’
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